Extracorporeal Pregnancy as a Feminist Issue

Iskra Krstić


Extracorporeal pregnancy (ectogenesis) presents perhaps the culmination of reproductive technology (NRT). Second wave feminism welcomed the use of NRT (including extracorporeal pregnancy) as a means of women’s liberation. Later on, theories belonging to the third wave pointed out the negative implications of NRT and reclaimed the power of unassisted reproduction. This paper will try to point out some remaining productive potentials of NRT and extracorporeal pregnancy. The author wishes to explore the changes in the conceptualisation of the integrity of the individual in the context of the feminist critique of ectogenesis.


extracorporeal pregnancy, ectogenesis, new reproductive technologies, motherhood, feminism

Full Text:



Aristarkhova, Irina. “Ectogenesis and mother as machine.“ Body and Society 11, 3 (2005).

Batler, Džudit. Nevolja s rodom – Feminizam i subverzija identiteta. Loznica:Karpos, 2010.

Becker, Gay. The elusive embrio: How Women and Men Approach New Reproductive Technologies. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000

Butler. Judith. “Is Kinship Always Already Heterosexual?.” Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies, 13, 1 (2002): 14–44.

Cannold, Leslie. “Women, Ectogenesis, and Ethical Theory.” Journal of Applied Philosophy 12, 1 (1995): 55–64.

Dickinson, Donna. Property in the Body: Feminist Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Ferreira, Aline. “The Sexual Politics of Ectogenesis in the To-day and To-morrow Series.” Interdisciplinary Science Reviews 34, 1 (2009): 32–55.

Firestone, Shulamith. The Dialectics of Sex: The Case for Feminist Revolution. New York: Bantam Book, 1970.

Gelfand, Scott and Shook R. John ed. Ectogenesis: Artificial Womb Technology and the Future of Reproduction. New York: VIBS, 2006.

Harraway, Donna. Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The reinvention of women. New York: Routledge, 1991.

Holmes, Helen Bequaert, and Laura B. Purdy ed. Feminist Perspectives in Medical Ethics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992.

Lykke, Nina. “Are Cyborgs Queer? Biological Determinism and Feminist Theory in the Age of New Reproductive Technologies and Reprogenetics.“ Project "Cyborgs and Cyberspace – Between Narration and Sociotechnical Reality", Danish Research Agency, 2000.

McKie, Robin. “Men redundant? Now we don't need women either. “ The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2002/feb/10/medicalscience.research

Mejia, Paula. "Fetuses in Artificial Wombs: Medical Marvel or Misogynist Malpractice?." Newsweek, http://www.newsweek.com/

Milanović, A. M. “Transrodno telo kao mesto transgresije binarno strukturirane rodnosti.” AM Journal of Art and Media Studies 4 (2013): 56–63.

Neyer, Gerda, and Laura Bernardi. “Feminist perspectives on motherhood and reproduction.” Historical Social Research, 2, 36 (2011): 162–176.

Nyrövaara, Eeva. The Feminist Transformation of Bioethics: An Analysis of Theoretical Perspectives and Practical Applications in Feminist Bioethics. PhD diss., University of Helsinki, 2011.

Pitch, Tamar. Pervasive Prevention: a Feminist Reading of the Rise of the Security Society. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2010

Rowland, Robin. Living laboratories: Women and reproductive technologies. Sydney: Macmillan, 1992

Stojanović, Dragana. “Razlika kao mesto odakle: teorijsko izvođenje telesnosti i rodnosti iz perspektive feminizama razlike. “ AM Časopis za studije umetnosti i medija 6 (2014): 25–33.

Strickler, Jennifer. “The new reproductive technology: problem or solution?“ Sociology of Health & Illness 14, 1 (March 1992): 111–132.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25038/am.v0i8.104


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 AM Journal of Art and Media Studies

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

The content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

AM Journal of Art and Media Studies ISSN 2217-9666 - printed, ISSN 2406-1654 - online, UDK 7.01:316.774

Contact: amjournal@outlook.com

Publisher: Faculty of Media and Communications, Singidunum University, Belgrade, Serbia

Indexed in: ERIH PLUSEBSCODOAJ, and in The List of Scientific Journals Categorization of Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of Republic of Serbia (M24-2021). Beginning with No. 12 2017, AM is indexed, abstracted and covered in Clarivate Analytics service ESCI.