Augmented Entanglement of Narrative Chronotopes and Urban Territories

Dimitrios Makris, Maria Moira


The complex conditions of urban places render it difficult to identify and perceive their multivariate aesthetic characters. The question examined herein is in which ways digital media like Augmented Reality (AR) can facilitate a more comprehensive aesthetic appreciation of a place by individuals, enhance their overall experience and allow them to recognize the aesthetic distinctiveness of places that may be phenomenologically dense with aesthetics, memory, meaning, legibility. The framework proposed is founded on the inherent power of novels as chronotopes of potential dialogical experiences and on four characteristic strategies of AR.

Narrative chronotope singularities are fundamental sources for understanding the collective, cultural, historical, social and spatial practices, leading to an understanding of urban environments. So the first step is to extract narrative chronotope analysis content from a novel’s urban substance (buildings, roads, squares), characters, plot and sequence of events. The second step involves a three-dimensional re-creation of urban heritage components. Finally, the AR media is interwoven with the novels based on four strategies: reinforcement of aspects of real-world urban places by digitally overlaying the novel’s setting; recontextualization to achieve the semantic transformation of places as the novel’s significance and meanings are revealed; remembrance by facilitating the emergence of diverse identities and memories; and re-embodiment through achieving a deeper understanding and re-interconnectedness with the aesthetic aspects of urban places.

Augmented narrative descriptions restore harmony between body-mind-environment and fiction while ensuring that different times, places and psychological situations coincide. The proposed novel-based digitally-mediated interaction could provide a shift that leads to the embodiment, enhancement and re-conceptualization of the diverse aesthetic dimensions of constructs such as ‘heritage monuments’, ‘local community’, ‘public place’, etc.

Article received: April 2, 2019; Article accepted: July 6, 2019; Published online: October 15, 2019; Review article

How to cite this article: Makris, Dimitris and Maria Moira. "Augmented Entanglement of Narrative Chronotopes and Urban Territories." AM Journal of Art and Media Studies 20 (2019): 87-96. doi: 10.25038/am.v0i20.335



augmented reality; aesthetic experience; aesthetic engagement; novels; urban place.

Full Text:



Azuma, Roland. “Location-Based Mixed and Augmented Reality Storytelling.” Fundamentals of Wearable Computers and Augmented Reality, edited by Woodrow Barfield, 259–76. New York: CRC Press, 2015.

Bal, Mike. Narratology. Introduction to the Theory of Narrative. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009.

Bridge, Gary and Sophie Watson. “City Imaginaries.” In A Companion to the City, edited by Gary Bridge and Sophie Watson, 6–17. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2003. doi:10.1002/9780470693414.ch1

de Certeau, Michel. The Practice of Everyday Life, trans. Steven Rendall. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.

de Jong Irene. J. F., ed. Space in Ancient Greek Literature: Studies in Ancient Greek Narrative. Leiden: Koninklijke Brill NV, 2012.

Durrell, Lawrence. The Alexandria Quartet. London: Faber and Faber, 1968.

Friedman, Stanford Susan. “Spatial poetics and Arundhati Roy’s The God of Small Things.” In A Companion to Narrative Theory, edited by James Phelan and Peter J. Rabinowitz, 192–205. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2005.

Gallese, Vittorio and Hannah Wojciehowski. “How Stories Make Us Feel: Toward an Embodied Narratology.” California Italian Studies 2, 1 (2011): https:// uc/ item/ 3jg726c2

Heirman, Jo and Jacqueline Klooster. The Ideologies of Lived Space in Literary Texts, Ancient and Modern. Gent: Academia Press, 2013.

Herman, David. “Spatial Reference in Narrative Domains.” Text 21, 4 (2001): 515–41.

Holquist, Michael. Dialogism: Bakhtin and His World. London and New York: Routledge, 2002.

Hugues, Olivier, Fhilippe Fuchs and Olivier Nannipieri. “New augmented reality taxonomy: Technologies and features of augmented environment.” In Handbook of Augmented Reality, edited by Borko Furht, 47–63. Cham: Springer, 2011.

Jung, Timothy and M. Cluaudia tom Dieck, eds. Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality. Empowering Human, Place and Business. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2018.

Lynch, Kevin. The Image of the City. Chicago: The MIT Press, 1960.

Mahfouz, Naguib. Miramar. New York: Anchor Books, 1993.

Makris, Dimitrios and Maria Moira. “Augmenting Urban Places’ Identities with Novels.” In Innovative Approaches to Tourism and Leisure, edited by Vicky Katsoni and Kathy Velander, 245–48. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2018.

Moira, Maria and Dimitrios Makris. “Athens literary cartographies during the years of crisis.” Proceedings of the 6th European Congress of Modern Greek Studies. Lund, 4–7 October 2018.

Moira, Maria and Dimitrios Makris. “Cultural memory in its spatio-narrative-augmented reality.” International Journal of Media & Cultural Politics 14, 2 (2018): 151–69. doi: 10.1386/macp.14.2.153_1

Montello, Daniel R. “Scale and Multiple Psychologies of Space.” In: Spatial Information Theory A Theoretical Basis for GIS. COSIT 1993. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 716, edited by A. U. Frank and I. Campari, 312–21. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 1993.

Musil, Robert. The Man Without Qualities. Translated by Sophie Wilkins. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995.

Pamuk, Orhan. Istanbul: Memories and City. Translated by M. Freely. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2006.

Prieto, Eric. Literature, Geography, and the Postmodern Poetics of Place. Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2012.

Rau, Susanne and Ekkehard Schönherr Ekkehard, eds. Mapping Spatial Relations. Their Perceptions and Dynamics. Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography. Cham: Springer, 2014.

Stanford Friedman, Susan. “Spatialization, Narrative Theory, and Virginia Woolf's The Voyage Out.” In Ambiguous Discourse – Feminist Narratology and British Women Writers, edited by Kathy Mezei, 109–36. University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Tsirkas, Stratis. Drifting Cities A Trilogy. Translated by K. Cicellis. Athens: Kedros, 2015.

Tuan, Yi-Fu. “Language and the making of place: A narrative-descriptive approach.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 81, 4 (1991): 684–96.

Xanthoulis, Giannis. Konstantinoupoli ton asevon mou fovon. Athens: Dioptra, 2014.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 AM Journal of Art and Media Studies

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

The content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

AM Journal of Art and Media Studies ISSN 2217-9666 - printed, ISSN 2406-1654 - online, UDK 7.01:316.774


Publisher: Faculty of Media and Communications, Singidunum University, Belgrade, Serbia

Indexed in: ERIH PLUSEBSCODOAJ, and in The List of Scientific Journals Categorization of Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of Republic of Serbia (M24-2021). Beginning with No. 12 2017, AM is indexed, abstracted and covered in Clarivate Analytics service ESCI.